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Volume V Number 12 


Editorial John Collier 1 

Indians Employed In The Indian Service Georges M. Weber 5 

New Navajo-Hopi Medical Center At Fort Defiance 6 

Cover Design 7 

Dr. Edgar A. Farrow, Paiute Superintendent, 

Retires 8 

Governor Of Acoma Pueblo In New Mexico Breaks 

All Pottery That Is Not » Genuine" S 

Pima High School Graduates First Class A. E. Robinson 9 

Cooperation Between CCC-ID And Local Residents .. Claude C. Cornwall 10 

Idaho Indians Employed In Filming Of 

"Northwest Passage" 10 

Fir st-Aid Instruction Saves A Life Harold L. Turner 11 

George G. Wren , Land Field Agent , Dies 11 

Indian Emergency Conservation Work Passes 

Fifth Birthday 13 

Trading Post To Be Opened At Lake Tahoe , Nevada 13 

The Case Of Maria Franci sco 19 

Indian Girl To Attend International Girl Scouts 

Meeting In Switzerland 21 

The Chilocco Homesteaders After Three Tears Andrew Vander Plaats . ... 22 

"Sequoyah," By Grant Foreman, Issued By 

University Of Oklahoma Press 24 

New Book Issued On Cherokee History 24 

The American Indian Sign Language John P. Harrington 25 

Lac Du Flambeau Chippewas Build Summer Colony - 30 

Recent Changes Of Assignment 30 

Bills Affecting Indian Affairs Enacted During The 

Third Session, 75th Congress 31 

CCC-ID Work At Siletz Reservation, Washington ... Leo F. Walker 34 

Washington Office Visitors 35 

Kiowa Agency CCC-ID Enrollees Profit By Varied 

Vocational Program Donald B. Jones 36 

Salt Long A Commodity Among Indians 36 

The Reorganization Of Farm Management In Kansas . P. Everett Sperry 37 

Department Of Agriculture Issues Handbook On 

Terracing 3 ^ 

The Cherokees Before Removal Jonn p ■ Brown 40 

Suggested Book List For Indian Schools 42 

From CCC-ID Reports 43 



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I wish that I could share with fellow-workers, Indian and 
white, certain impressions from the highlands (not the tropics or 
the coffee country) of Guatemala. The population there is more than 
80 per cent Indian. To communicate, with accuracy, an "impression", 
is not easy, but I try. 

One impression: a million of full-blooded Indians whose 
economy is so nearly self-contained that if the whole world, beyond 
those mountainy highlands, were blotted out by a catastrophe, only 
negligible changes would ensue for the Indians. Infrequent automo- 
biles on climbing and plunging roads would no longer disturb men, 
women, children, pigs, dogs, chickens, goats, occasional mules and 
burros, as by tens of thousands, and never loitering, but of tener at 
a dog- trot, they continue their market-journeys, uninterrv^ted for a 
thousand years.* And roads would wash and cave away: for no longer 
would a socially remote power require $2.50 a year of road tax from 

* We passed hundreds of women, all in their colored home-woven 
and home-embroidered textiles. Figures slim and perfectly poised 
- balancing their round trays loaded with produce for the market 
twelve miles away - necks arched, eyes forward, arms relaxed at 
the side, with a gliding motion and bending knees, and seldom a 
pause. Chatting and laughing with those on the road or by their 
sides as they trotted along. Again, at a dog-trot, the return 
after the sales at the market - another twelve miles or more. 

each Indian, and in default of it, two weeks' work on roads. The 
modern world's technology would vanish: it would make little differ- 
ence, if the lapsed copper-technology could be retrieved. Modern 
medicine would vanish: it would make almost no difference. Alcohol, 
the curse, would be wanting. Food, clothing, housing, transport, 
methods of agriculture, of manufacture, production for market, recre- 
ation, would be unaffected, except for a few details. Manual crafts 
would diversify and perhaps would effloresce, silently, from a hun- 
dred f olk-center6 . "Standard of living" would go upward, with the 
disappearance of alcohol. 

But self-contained economy is only the beginning of the 
impression. Here feeds itself, from ever-living roots deep in the 
earth's soil and in the heart, a culture - a society - uninterrupted 
not for a thousand but for two thousand years, or longer than. that. 
The ancient Mayan systems built themselves, incredibly flowered in 
blood, in gold, in music, in stone made as soft and as rich as human 
lineaments or trees: flowered, and melted away, founded upon this 
sub -structure society, and left this society unchanged. European 
invaders came and methodically annihilated the men, the classes of 
men, the records, even, of the Mayan super-structure, so plunging 
into everlasting night one of the world's "great ages." Oblivion 
fell on the memories of the Indians, but it was only an oblivion to- 
ward something that always had been remote; and their basic society 
silently lived on, and unchanged came through the four hundred years 
of Latin or Ladino (Mixed-blood, European! zed) vicissitude and op- 
pression. And now, with the crunching and thundering of the tech- 
nological age so close, and even geographically interpenetrating, 
e money-economy in the Ladino towns dotted through the highlands, 
and a Ladino government preoccupied with an export trade which holds 
the currency at par, still that most ancient of the pasts lives on. 
It is not a sentimentally cultivated past, nor even known by the In- 
dians as a past; it is a toiling and pulsing, a fear-freighted and 
joyr-freighted present and future to them. 

And not something to climb out of, to escape. Sophisticated 
are the Indians' textiles (sophisticated from of old), which by con- 
scious purposefulness concede nothing to the great world's market; 
and sophisticated is their social choice: they want, with a con- 
scious determination practically universal, to be, to think, to feel, 
to act, to have and to forego, as what they are . The choice is all- 
inclusive and reaches to the (to us, outsiders) obviously good and 
the (to us, outsiders) obviously not-good parts (though, actually, 
are there any detachable parts?), anciently tried and proved, inter- 
weaved and fused: implicit institutions, invisible^ government, be- 
liefs, curing systems, family complexes, village identities, tech- 
nologies or refusals of technologies, sorrows and compensations and 

As for understanding, approbation, assistance, honor from 
the near or far alien, ruling world: these they have never had, do 
not count upon or expect, even do not want.* In this not-wanting 
from the alien world, possibly a profound instinct toward life, made 
cautious through the bitter denials of milleniums, is as controlling 
an element as is the conscious, sophisticated choice: who can tell: 
what is sure, is that these Indians for twenty centuries have been 
ruled over by masters, of their own or distant bloods, indifferent 
at best, scornful and hating at worst, and have held fast to their 
uncommunicated own, and go on holding fast, and perhaps will go on 
beyond our age and beyond all its blind titans of ruling ideas and 
of inventions and instruments and plunging social change. 

Hungered and filled with pain, severe, filled with not- 
having, filled with denial, is their life: so to us it looks, how 
does it look to them? But what about that effort, from age to age 
renewed, of our own spirit in the stream of White history, while 
conquest of earth has progressed, pride of rule has increased, and 
securities, comforts, easily-had pleasures have multiplied, to hurl 
itself out from all these gains in order to have life and not lose 
it? The thought would lead too far, is not worth pursuing in this 
context. But I remember a priest in this Guatemala highland - he 
is over seventy years old, and very frail now - whose congregation 
is nearly eighty thousand Indians: his church, upon whose steps, 
within a little altar, "pagan" fires burn and die and are lit again 
day and night: the undecorated interior of his church, narrow, and 
reaching far into dimness, and the long pathway of ever-renewed odor- 
ous rose petals there, the candles among the rose petals, the gum- 
incense clouding the air, the swaying, kneeling Indians, and how 
these worshippers were not married in or by the church or state but 
"beautifully and well", as the priest tells it, in their grass- 
thatched adobe homes where no roads lead, out in the rain-darkened 
mountains.** "They are good, they are kind, they are themselves, 
they have their power, they have their happiness." And to illuminate 
his thought, the priest in rolling German quotes Goethe, the master: 
"Cloudy, gray, uncertain are all systems (of ideas or of society) - 
cloudy, chill, and failing us; but green is life." So the priest 
meets suggestions about changing - improving - the Indians of Guate- 
mala's highland. 

President Ubico tekes the Indians' part. This now anc\ ^ hang ar) 
position of Government may have far-reaching results if it be con- 
tinued and expanded. As yet, it can not have affected the social- 
mental structures so old and so functional and deeply integrated. 

** The Indians resist the civil marriage ceremony, and in default 
of the civil ceremony, the church ceremony is forbidden by law. 

Then, a diary entry, from the plaza of this same pre-Colum- 
bian town. 

"Our party had returned from a market town 60 kilometers 
from here. A very steep road, over many ranges, from 5,000 to 11,000 

"Up the steep street here, at five o'clock today, while 
the rain fell, came an Indian. He was about five feet, three inches 
tall. He was carrying pottery - a very fragile pottery, for Indian 
use alone, packed with extreme care. His rain-mat of split bamboo 
covered him and his big burden. We stopped him. Sweat was pouring 
in heavy drops - in streams - from his face, though it was cold in 
this hill-town. 

"His burden was somewhat over 100 pounds. 

"Very slowly, leaning on a pointed staff, he lowered his 
burden. We had priced identical pottery in the market, and we 
figured that all he was carrying would bring between ninety cents 
and a dollar if all the pieces were sold. 

"A part of his burden was tortillas - his only food ex- 
cept coffee and a tiny coffee pot, a tin cup, a tiny wick lamp, and 
a small bottle of kerosene. 

"He had left his home town (the very place we had just 
returned from) at midnight the night before; had walked or run the 
60 kilometers, without resting; and was going on to his destination, 
45 kilometers from here, before he stopped. Tomorrow was market day 
at his destination. Thereafter, with a changed but probably not 
lightened burden, he would journey, non-stop, back to his home, and 
help get ready the pottery for the next market. 

"Very sweet was the gathering of other Indians around him 
(talking together not in Spanish), who helped him ease and again 
lift his burden. And sweet, his 'God love you', when he received 
a whole dollar for ten of the glistering platters of 2 feet diameter. 
(We probably will smash them all, getting them home. ) Into the twi- 
light he went his way, and the rain fell on and on. One of the tens 
- no, the hundreds - of thousands of Indians, on Guatemala's roads 
and paths." 


Commissioner of Indian Affairs 


By Georges M. Weber, Statistician 

Is the Indian Service utilizing the training and talents 
available among Indians? The results of a recent survey certainly 
point in this direction. 

Heretofore, the data on the participation of Indians in 
the work of the Indian Service have been too incomplete to warrant 
definite statements on the employment of Indians in this Service. 
For this reason, a questionnaire was recently sent to all jurisdic- 

The results of this survey indicate that on April 1, 1933, 

3,916 Indians were employed, of whom 3,627 were regular employees 
and 289 were emergency workers employed for six months or more.* In 
other words, approximately one-half of the regular employees in the 
Indian Service are Indians. 

One of the most striking revelations of this survey is the 
large number of full-bloods: 41.7 per cent. An additional 30.8 per 
cent are half-blood or over, and 21.8 per cent are quarter-blood or 
over. That is, of the total permanent Indian employees of the In- 
dian Service, 72.5 per cent are half-blood or over and 94.3 per cent 
are quarter-blood or over. 

The agencies where large numbers of full-blood Indians are 
employed are, as would be expected, those in full-blood areas: Nav- 
ajo and United Pueblos. 

Sixty-five per cent of the total permanent Indian employ- 
ees are men; 35 per cent are women. 

It has been said by some commentators on Indian affairs 
that while undoubtedly employment of Indians in the Indian Service 
has increased in recent years, most Indian employees were in the low- 
est salary ranges. The actual facts are these: 31.7 per cent of 
the permanently employed Indians receive salaries of from $600 to 
$1,079 per year; 33.2 per cent receive salaries in the range from 
$1,080 to $1,439; and 26.3 per cent are in the salary group of 
$1,440 to $1,999 per year. Approximately 4 per cent receive $2,000 
or more. 

As this material is analysed further, additional and more 
detailed data will be available. The figures now on hand are con- 
crete evidence that Indians are sharing increasingly in the work of 
the Indian Service - in numbers, in pay, and in responsibility. 

* This second group includes, for example, most CuC-ID foremen, but 
not CCC-ID enrollees. or other short term workers paid out of emer- 
gency funds. The total of all Indian workers including those of 
this latter category was 8,866 on April 1, 1938. 



Aopendectomy Operation At The New Fort Defiance Hospital 

Dr. Paul C. F. Vietzke Operating, Assisted By 

Dr. Raymond Mundt And Dr. Archie Sheinmel.* 

The dedication of the new Navajo 140-bed hospital at Fort 
Defiance, Arizona, on June 20, was participated in not only by ad- 
ministrative and medical staff members and by several distinguished 
visitors, but by a number of Navajos themselves, including outstand- 
ing medicine men of the tribe. 

Nearly a thousand Navajos attended the ceremony of presen- 


Speakers at the ceremony included Dr. James G. Townsend, 
Director of the Indian Service's health work, Dr. W. W. Peter, and 
the Navajo Superintendent E. R. Fryer. Henry Taliman and Tom Dodge, 

♦Photograph by Milton Snow. 

Navajos, spoke on behalf of the tribe. Among the distinguished 
visitors pr^e^-we^g^ 

gist, of ST7 L'Ouis '/"I»%"' Wililam""Haggart, surgeon 'o'rTJenvef"T"and 
the Indian Service's own district medical director, Dr. Estella 

Ford ^ffi&UXPMtSihHS*® ^oFJgfleP^fe *&!#?? £j#ication, 
and othf l p,|r^m,^he^ue^o ffiBa* iainqffB ,«mtfl .A tasba . iQ .rttno* 

A colorful feature of the dedication was* (he recitation 

big enough |9 r ,4gn^ q % j .n|w Iftft^u^pn^Sacjed P^l^w,^ vislu 

ba& Sa&bneictliQqissi sjmsos-ci' 3s£al eH .sixtiolilsO ,Il3wbi2 Jic^ ^s 

medicine e me 5 ^^Je^vrffgj £f e^djjojfce^p ^^^t^^h^^.fct -revo 
bui M»e, tyaW&t%iilB§Vm& e b§M&6SH&^)l&&B flHF e ri5PSwP*Wi* '"vSS^A 

the £B$ e S^&WSai-.9£blk&w^§^^^^^ 

-j$t? rtsifenl ow.-t baa snoi steVseBSi td^le ot cru ^flfrfiafloqaa* 
£.KBKJ-orii A ^^ er ">'*^ e dedication ceremonies, a, two-day series of 
clinics was held for physicians in the Navajo Aree . The latest 
techniques in the treatment of trachoma were included in the demon- 
strations . 

The old Fort Defiance General Hospital will become a 
sanatorium for the treatment 1 of tuberculosis cases, with a capacity 

of about one hundred patients * ^^ wi-li'bei ready in about six weeks . 


Following the dedication ceremonies, a barbecue was held 
at noon, followed by an Indian rodeo and field events and by a 
squaw dance in the evening. 

The new hospital was built upon almost the exact location 
from which Kit Carson, famous Indian fighter, launched his .military 
campaign in 1864 against the Navajos. 

Every bed in the new hospital was filled before the formal 
opening; in fact, on the day of the dedication it was filled to more 
than its regular capacity. As evidence that the Navajos are any- 
thing but a dying race, seven fine Navajo babies were born within 
30 hour 8 a few days before the opening. 


The picture on the cover of this issue of "Indians At 
Work" shows a group of CCC-ID workers pouring the concrete founda- 
tion for a stock water i;ank on the Papago Reservation in Arizona- 


The Indian Service has lost, by retirement, this past 
month, Dr. Edgar A. Farrow, superintendent and physiolan at the 
Paiute Agency in Utah. 

Dr. Farrow has had a long cexeer in the government serv- 
ice, which he entered in 1903. He served in the Philippine Constab- 
ulary from 1903 to 1914, and during the latter part of his service 
was assistant superintendent of its medical division with the rank 
of major. He transferred to the Indian Servioe in 1915 as physician 
at Fort Bldwell, California. He later became superintendent and 
physician at the Kaibab Indian Agency in Arizona, which later took 
over the Goshute Agency in Utah, and, in 1927, the Moapa River 
Agency, after which the agency was renamed the Paiute Agency, with 
headquarters at Cedar City, Utah. This consolidation brought the 
agency responsibility up to eight reservations and two Indian set- 
tlements, in three states, whose circuit requires over two thousand 
miles of travel. 

Dr. Farrow's work in range management and the upbuilding 
of livestock has been outstanding. He was a pioneer in the conserva- 
tion movement in the Indian Service and the results of his twenty- 
year effort in controlled grazing are now apparent in the fine con- 
dition of a once-denuded range. 


Enforcing strict compliance with the traditional Acotna 
manner of making pottery, the governor of the sky-high Indian pueblo, 
Syme Sanchez, is breaking every piece that is not "genuine", Dr. Sophie 
Aberle, Superintendent of the United Pueblos Agency,, has been informed. 

The governor and his staff are visiting all points where 
Acoraas have pottery for sale and examine every piece. Any pieces 
that ar& chipped or on which the work has been slighted, are smashed. 

The effort of the governor to guarantee real Acoma pottery 
to customers is the same, in a smaller way, as the work of the Indian 
Arts and Crafts Board which puts a mark on genuine Indian goods. 

Reprinted from " Albuquerque Journal " - Albuquerque, New 
Mexico - June 4, 1938. 


By A. B. Robinson, Superintendent, Pima Agency, Arizona. 

Pima Central High School graduated in June its first class 
of nine boys and one girl. The event is memorable not only because 
it was our first class, but because, so far as I can learn, it is 
the first group of Indian high school students who have graduated 
from a reservation school under the day school plan- The boys and 
girls have lived at home with their parents during their entire 
course. I feel that the results of this combination of home and 
school training are all that we have hoped for. These students are 
self-reliant and capable, in close touch with their homes, and yet 
trained in the social ways and educational background of white young 

Governor R. C. Stanford, who has known many of our older 
Indians personally, addressed the students at their graduating 
exercises • 

The 1938 Nurse Aid Class At Kiowa Indian Hospital, Anadarko, Oklahoma 



By Claude C. Cornwall, Camp Supervisor, CCC-ID 

. „%%l\W 

♦• K^W* * 

The point 
where Highway Number 
79, which is the 
principal traffic 
artery between Phoe- 
nix and Tucson, Ari- 
zona, goes over the 
Sacaton Bridge across 
the Gila River is a 
dangerous corner . The 
little Indian Service 
Irrigation division 
community at Oldberg 
is the only inhabited 
spot in this area- 

Upon invitation of Superintendent A. E. Robinson of the Pima 
Agency and CCC-ID Project Manager Clyde H. Packer, the proprietor of 
the Oldberg Trading Post, Gladys M. Ellis and J. G. Woody, Oldberg 
resident, volunteered to attend the CCC-ID first-aid classes. The 
result is that a highway first-aid station has been established at 
Oldberg, with trained attendants and a supply of first-aid materials 
at hand, furnished by the newly organized Sacaton branch of the Amer- 
ican Red Cross. 

The value of such a station is twofold - not only as a 
place of help in time of need; but as a reminder to all who pass, 
including the local Pima Indians, to drive with care. 


Some 200 Indians from Nez Perce, Coeur d'Alene, and Fort 
Hall were recently employed at McCall, Idaho in the filming by Metro- 
Goldwyn-Mayer of Kenneth Roberts' novel of pioneer days, "Northwest 
Passage." Superintendent A. G. Wilson reports that the Indians were 
well paid and fed. Most of them took their teepees with them to the 
motion picture locale. 


By Harold L . Turner, Clerk, CCC-ID 
Consolidated Ute Agency, Colorado 

A recent accident here, with a fortunate outcome, has 
proved the value of first-aid training at the Consolidated Ute Agency. 

One Sunday morning in June, on a farm north of Towaoc, 
Mary Pie, the seven-year-old daughter of Henry Pie, a former Indian 
CCC-ID enrollee, was playing out in the sagebrush. While trying to 
catch a young rabbit, she put her hand into a clump of brush and was 
bitten by a diamond-back rattlesnake. 

With the child's first scream, her father ran toward her. 
He immediately realized her plight, gathered his thoughts together, 
and applied the first-aid technique he had learned in his CCC train- 
ing. First he produced quick bleeding by cutting slits in the two 
fingers where the poisonous reptile had inserted his fangs; second, 
he induced suction; then he used pieces of cloth for tourniquets 
which he promptly applied to keep the poison from spreading through- 
out the blood stream. 

Henry then brought his small daughter to the Ute Mountain 
Hospital at Towaoc. Antivenom shots were administered and the child 
was kept in bed for a few days . The treatment was successful and 
the little girl is now at home entirely recovered. 

Dr. James H. Mitchell, Physician-In-Charge, said that had 
it not been for Henry's prompt action and presence of mind in giv- 
ing first-aid, his daughter would undoubtedly have died. 


Mr. George G. Wren, Land Field Agent at Muskogee, Oklahoma, 
died suddenly on July 13, after a few days' illness. Mr. Wren had 
been employed since 1934 in land acquisition work and since 1937 had 
been in charge of the field work for the land-buying program for 
Oklahoma and Kansas under the Indian Reorganization Act and the Okla- 
homa Welfare Act. He had demonstrated outstanding ability in his 































Last April the fifth anniversary of the Civilian Conserva- 
tion Corps was celebrated. Emergency Conservation Work for Indians, 
however, did not begin until June 1933. "Indians At Work", which 
began as an I.E.C.W. magazine, was founded the following August; 
consequently this issue marks its fifth birthday. We present a 
series of CCC-ID pictures taken at various times during the past 
five years, as an anniversary feature. 

Most photographs of Indians in E.C.W. activities have 
shown Indians at their jobs - building dams and charcos, cutting 
truck trails, building fences and otherwise working to protect and 
develop reservation resources. 

However, Indians, like other people, do not work twenty- 
four hours a day. The pictures on the opposite page and on the 
pages following show something of what goes on at Indian CCC proj- 
ects outside of working hours. 



A trading post at which Indian arts and crafts will be 
sold throughout the tourist season will be established within a 
short time at Bijou, Lake Tahoe, by the Indian Service. It will 
be a branch post of the main trading post at Carson City which is 
conducted by the Indians of the Stewart Indian School. 

The Lake Tahoe Post will be built upon land recently 
leased for that purpose by the government. Reprinted from the 
Reno Evening Gazette , June 8, 1938 . 



























































































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By An Indian Service Community Worker 

An ever-recurring problem for Indian Service workers and 
for tribal social welfare and relief committees is that of relief. 
It is one which requires careful and thoughtful analysis: who is 
eligible for relief; how to make a given fund go as far as possible; 
how best to work with state and county officials; what the effect 
of relief will be on a community or on a family; how to make relief 
mean to its recipients not merely something to buy food with, but 
the chance for family rehabilitation. These are problems which 
touch the jobs of many Indian Service workers, particularly social 
and community workers, of whom the Indian Service has 23. 

The case described below describes one type of Indian 
family applying for aid for dependent children. It is the kind of 
family whose members will make good use of assistance and who, at 
the same time, will continue to do all they can for themselves. 

Maria Francisco, Indian, age 35, lives at Blanco Village 
on a reservation in the Southwest, some 48 miles northwest of the 
agency. Her tiny village is reached by driving first to the day 
school serving the area, then by following a winding, dusty school 
bus route for four miles. 

Maria owns her own group of ocatillo and adobe buildings 
which consists of one church, one kitchen and three bedrooms. These 
buildings were put up some 18 or 19 years ago, and, considering 
their age, appear to be fairly substantial. The floors are of dirt, 
packed through wear to a hard finish. Light and air enter the 
buildings through one door opening, since windows are still a luxury 
in Blanco. Fireplaces give warmth during the brisk months of the 
winter season. Furnishings are partly homemade. Beds are entirely 
lacking in the Francisco home: all immediate members of the family- 
sleep side by side on the ground beside the open fire. Bed clothing 
is scarce. Kerosene lamps and the friendly flames from the fireplace 
provide light at night. Water is hauled in barrels for a distance 
of four milea. 

'All names in this article, including those of villages, are fic- 
titious. The case, however, is a real one. 


Maria's husband was killed in an accident in 1930 on the 
main highway, leaving Maria as the head of the family which in- 
cludes not only her own children, but her energetic grandmother, 
a sister, a brother, a nephew and for the present at least, two 
nieces. They are: Johnny, son, age 16. Johnny endeavors to care 
for the family's nine cows. Isabel, daughter, 15, who attends the 
day school. Clara, daughter, 14, also at the day school. Juan, 
son, 10, also at the day school. These children ride the Govern- 
ment bus to the school four miles away daily. Other members of 
the family include: Rosa Garcia, 85, mother; Nina Garcia, 50, 
widowed sister; Miguel Garcia, 65, brother (widower); Richard Gar- 
cia, 15, nephew. At the moment the following nieces are staying 
in the household: Mary Rodriguez, age 8 (her mother died in 1937); 
and Anne Rodriguez, age 6 (mother dead). 

Also living in the same group of buildings and sharing 
good times and poverty alike are Paul Ortiz and his wife Anna, 
with their two children Pedro and Lucia, aged five and three. Paul 
seems to have a serious eye infection. 

Maria speaks no English. She is most anxious to have 
her children learn it, however, and she makes every effort to send 
her children to the government school regularly. The children are 
receiving medical attention at school which the doctor visits once 
a week. A field nurse lives at Santa Caterina and visits Blanco 
Village as a part of her area. The children get weekly baths at 
school and a hot noon lunch. The two girls are taking home econ- - 
omics work and are learning to make their own clothing. 

Maria has never received government rations of any kind. 
By washing clothes and cleaning at Santa Caterina, she has been 
given small quantities of food and clothing for her family in re- 
turn. Basket-making in the late winter months and cotton-picking 
during the season have been her only sources of cash during the 
last two years. 

Maria was born at Blanco, where she now lives. Since 
her nine cows are unable to find sufficient forage and water in 
the village, Maria lets them graze at Henovari, her summer home. 
(Nearly all of this tribe have two homes - for winter and summer.) 
Here she goes every season to gather the sahuaro fruit and to be 
nearer a water supply. Maria's life has been spent almost entirely 
in these two villages, with the exception of cotton seasons when 
her husband moved to be near the cotton fields. 

In 1934 and 1935 Maria was employed at the Santa Cater- 
ina School to help in laundry and kitchen work. She received food, 
clothing and a small check for her services. After the school was 
discontinued as a semi -boarding school, her services in this capac- 


ity were no longer needed; consequently cotton-picking and basket- 
making, as related above, have been her only means of securing 
cash since that time. There is at present, no definite income in 
the Francisco household. If the desert beans are plentiful, Maria's 
family is sure of beans for the winter months . If the beans are 
scarce, Maria must swap baskets with neighbors for the necessary 
beans • 

Maria is a robust, healthy individual, pleasant to know, 
friendly and cooperative to deal with. All her children seem to 
be strong and well, although they vary in weight and build. 

In spite of their somewhat precarious existence, this 
family maintains an alert and happy outlook. People like these 
make good use of whatever help can be given them. 



Mayme Thompson 

Mayme Thompson, sev- 
enteen-year-old full-blood 
Cherokee, and student at the 
Sequoyah Indian School at Tahl- 
equah, Oklahoma, will represent 
Oklahoma, Texas, Arizona and 
New Mexico at the internation- 
al encampment of Girl Scouts 
to be held at Adelboden, Swit- 
zerland, August 11 to 29. The 
choice was made by a committee 
within the Girl Scouts' organ- 


By Andrew Vander Plaats, Instructor of Agriculture, 
Kiowa Agency, Oklahoma. (Formerly at Chilocco School In Oklahoma) 

Building A Feed Hack 

The Buzzards ' Corn 

What has happened to the Chilocco subsistence homestead 
project in Chilocco, Oklahoma, launched in 1935? The homesteaders 
have been on the ground for almost three years now, and the com- 
munity is a "going" concern. 

The project was started through arrangements between the 
Indian Service and the Subsistence Homesteads Division of the De- 
partment of the Interior. Some 3,000 acres of good farm land, a 
part of the 8,588-acre reserve of the Chilocco Indian Agricultur- 
al School, were set aside and divided into farms of about 160 acres 
each, with a common pasture of about 600 acres. Houses and farm 
buildings for fifteen homesteaders were erected. The houses are 
simple and well-built, without electric wiring and plumbing, but 
with a convenient water supply for each family. 

The fifteen homesteaders were carefully picked from among 
former Chilocco students. All had had agricultural training while 
at Chilocco; all had done some farming after graduation; and all 
were in need of help. They were all young men, most of them married 
and with children. Various Oklahoma tribes were represented, par- 
ticularly the Five Civilized Tribes, from which Chilocco draws a 
number of its students. 

Each homesteader has five acres set apart for buildings 
and a garden. In the homestead agreement, each individual has con- 
tracted to make payment over a thirty-year period for the buildings, 
equipment and livestock furnished him. In addition to this five 


acres, each homesteader leases approximately 155 acres of land on 
a five-year revocable permit which, under its terms, calls for care- 
ful planting methods, crop rotation and scrupulous care of the live- 

The group is largely self-governing. Employees of the 
school have been glad, however, to lend assistance and advice in 
specific problems; for example, the poultryman at the school has 
been able to help the homesteaders with their chickens and the home 
economics teacher has helped the women of the community in their 
canning problems. All the men are members of the Chilocco Home- 
stead Cooperative Association, of which Fred North is president. 
Through this organization they buy household supplies and other 
items of equipment. At their semi-monthly meetings members discuss 
common problems: recent discussions, for example, have centered 
around the planting of barley as a substitute for corn, needed for 
their hogs, but not always a sure crop in Oklahoma; and around 
problems which call for united action as, for instance, the vac- 
cination of stock. 

Each family is working out its problems to meet its in- 
dividual requirements. The Elmer Buzzard family of six, for ex- 
ample, grew 608 bushels of wheat on 50 acres of upland soil and 
1,250 bushels of oats on 33 acres. Elmer Buzzard is proud of his 
yellow and white corn and he has carefully selected the best ears 
as seed for this year's crop. Four splendid shorthorn heifers sup- 
ply his family with milk and bring in a small cash income. A fine- 
looking flock of Rhode Island reds also supplements the farm in- 

Albert Conrad, on the other hand, changed from chickens 
to the growing of turkeys; so far, with success. This family grows 
wheat also and sells the milk produced by five cows. 

Women at Chilocco are sharing not only in farm work but 
in civic responsibilities as well. Mrs. Charles Gray's exhibits 
of her canned fruits and vegetables at the Kay County Fair have 


Some Of The 
McGirts 1 Cattle 

Fall Plowing On 
The Conrad Homestead 


brought her several prizes. Mrs. Fred North, in addition to manag- 
ing her household, has found time to he the president of the parent- 
teacher association. 

The purpose of the Chilocco venture - to give a number of 
promising young people a start, and to enable them to develop into 
capable farmers and community leaders - is evidently being realized. 


The sixteenth book in the "Civilization of the American 
Indian" series issued by the University of Oklahoma Press at Norman, 
Oklahoma, appears with Grant Foreman's new book, Sequoyah . 

In Sequoyah is 'told briefly the story of the lame Chero- 
kee - whose name in English was George Guess - who became possessed 
of the idea of teaching his people to talk on paper like the white 
man. He was illiterate when he began his work and did not speak 
English, although he evidently understood it. For twelve years, 
in between times during his work as a silversmith and mechanic, he 
worked on his system, and finally perfected the eighty-six-symbol 
Sequoyan syllabary. As a result of his genius and his persistence, 
the Cherokee nation, which was already on the way to civilization 
in the fertile farmlands of Georgia and the Carolinas, quickly be- 
came a literate people. 


In "Old Frontiers", by John P. Brown*, long-time student 
of the Cherokees, is found a careful history of the Cherokee Nation: 
their own stories of their beginnings, their first contacts with De 
Soto's expedition, their history during Colonial times and during 
the Revolution, their quarrels with other Indians, the events lead- 
ing up to the Great Removal and the story of that terrible period- 
One brief chapter deals with the ancestors of the present Eastern 
Cherokees who escaped from the emigrating parties and fled to the 
fastness of the Great Smoky Mountains. 

The book includes a short Cherokee vocabulary, appendix 
material on land cessions made by the Cherokees and the Treaty of 
Sycamore Shoals in 1775, and a bibliography. 

* Southern Publishers, Kingsport, Tennessee. 



By John P. Harrington, Smithsonian Institution 

(This is the conclusion of Section 2 of an article on the American Indian Sign Language. 
Section 1 appeared in the March 1938 issue of "Indians At Work"; the first part of 
Section 2 appeared in the July 1938 issue.) 

VII. Preparation Mimicry . (The more strikingly mimicked action of preparation 
replaces the less strikingly mimicked finished product. 

Bread . Strike first flour . Hub back and forth across the palm sid» of 

one palm and then the the extended fingers of the left hand with the palm 

other into each other side or ball of the thumb of the right hand to mimic 

alternately, like patting the action of grinding flour according to the Indian 

a cake of dough. ■ B 47. method, the fingers representing the rough understood 

or metate, the thumb representing the upperstone, 
hand8tone, or mano; then, if one desires; define further 
by pointing at something white and then making 
the sign for bread. 

VIII. Effect Mimicry . The more strikingly mimicked effect or result replaces 
the less strikingly mimicked object which produces the effect or result. 

<zp^ z 

Star ; compound of night plus to 
twinkle. Nisht. Draw hands, backs up 
froa each side and cross them before 
the body. H N 6. 
To twinkle. Sea above. 

Salt , sour , bitter ; compound of to 

taste plus bad. To taste: Put extended 

index cautiously to mouth. Bad; 

Mimic the action of a throwing away 

by closing the fist, carrying it to the 

right, and opening it. 


IX. Stat e Substitution . A finger, e. g. , substitutes for a long object, and 

its erect or other self -position for the posture of the object. 

To stand . 
Erect index- 

Jo. lean . Incline hand 
with extended index. 

X. State mimicry . The posture of the axis of a long object is painted or 

substituted for, or the sign us"er's body is made to mimic the posture. 

•■- X 

To lie, prone . Paint with 
hanging hand from rear forward. 

squat . Assume posture 
of squatting. 

XI.. Counting . The signs captioned under this element are individually capable 
of other analysis, but are classified by the sign user himself as having to do with his 
"count" - - by which he means his Aathematics. 

None , all gone . 
Strike backs of 
empty hands into 
palms alternately 
2 or 3 times. 
H A 23. 

Half , fraction 

(of roundish 

object, e. g. , 

half dollar). 

See above. 

Half , fraction 
(of straight 
object). Lay 

extended index 
across other 

extended index. 
H C 35. 

One. Clench 

fists, inside 

turned forward, 

then extend right 

little finger. 


six . Clench 
fists, inside 
turned forward, 
then extend all 

the digits of 

the right hand 

and the thunb 

of the left. 

Twenty . Touch tip 
of extended right 

index to tip of 

index of extended 

left hand. 

Thumb of left hand 

is touched for ten . 

index for twenty . 

and so forth. 

Many , much . 

Bring the hands 

together with 

curved fingers, 

palm forward, 

then arc them 

apart sideward, 

upward and then 


All . Turn 

palm forward, 

then arc sideward, 

upward and 

then downward. 

H A 21. 

XII. Relativity . The element of comparison of objects is brought out by 
relative position and movement of index tips, by varying the same sign by making it 
large and small, and by other means. In the index tip signs, the indexes substitute 
for two competitive race runners. 

« * 

To equal. Chinese 
Jargon: all-ee 

same-ee. Put 

extended indexes 

side by side with 

tips even, then 

move them forward 

together a 

short distance. 

A little big . 

Make the sign for 

big ( see above), 

but diminutive 

size, accomplished 

by having hands 

nearer together 

than normally. 

To exceed , A little big . Big. 

Chinese Jargon: Make the sign for See above, 

he beat-em. Put 
extended indexes 

side by side 
in such a manner 
that the right 
tip is thrust 
from a position 
back of the left 
tip to a position 
beyond the left 
tip, like a 
winning racer. 

XIII. Bepe tit tonality . Action occurring more than once, or in steps or jerks, 
is mimicked by repeating the mimicry or by putting pauses in the route of the mimicry. 
This corresponds to verb reduplication in spoken language. Noun collectivity is ex- 
pressed in the sign language by various methods, the simplest being plural substitution: 
an erect index is a man, plural erect fingers are men - a direct device unattainable in 
spoken language. 


,-X--X — X 

To £0_, to, march . Erect 

index, then move hand 

forward by steps. 

Downward . Gesture down- 
ward-turned palm down- 
ward by steps. H D 35. 

XIV. Characteristic Accompaniment Added . An accompaniment or outline, though 
actually mostly absent, is added for distinguishment, as classifiers are added to fun- 
damentals in Chinese writing. 

Horse , rider , to ride . Straddle 
horizontally extended index with 
2 fingers of other hand to repre- 
sent horse and rider. 
If desired, mimic galloping action. 

XV. Characteristic Outline For A Whole. 

Ridge . Hook index 
over upper edge of 
other palm. 

House . Place indexes to form 
an inverted V, 
tips uncrossed. 

XVI. Characteristic Part For A Whole, 
painted or 'substituted. 

Tipl . P3ace indexes to form 
an inverted V, tips crossed to show 
poles projecting from top of tipl. 

A characteristic part for a whore is 

Moun tain - sheep , bighorn . Bring hands to 
temples, then paint outline of curve of 
mountain-sheep's horns. Conpare Irving, 
Astoria: "The bighorn is so named from 
its horns." (Irving, Astoria, 
1855, p. 240.) 

Buffalo . Hold hands on head with 
erect indexes curved outward and then 
inward at the tip to substitute for the 
horns of a buffalo. 


XVII. Characteristic Action For A Thole . A strikingly mimicked fragment of an 
activity represents the entire activity, and connected object. 

To snow , enow . Hang extended 
hand loosely, then paint sun- 
wise circle several revolu- 
tions to show swirling, 
characteristic partial 
acti.QB denoting the whole 
action of to snow, and snow 
H S 37 

To pack up. Strike 
right pelm on back of 
left hand, first on 
thumb side, then on 
little finger side. 
H P 1. 

Hatch . Uinic with 


adex oh forearm 
the striking of a 
match, partial action 

denoting the whole 
action of the match, 
and match. 

XVIJt. Interjections . These are highly conventionalized signs, mostly of origin 
now obscure, used in salutation, expression of gratitude, cursing, exclamation, affirma- 
tion, negation, and the like. Some of these signs are also used as adverbial particles. 

To salute. 

Merely "wave 

the hand at 

the person 


To curse. 
Hold half- 
open hand 
with curved 
thumb and 
fingers out 
toward the 
person cursed. 

Yes . Elevate 
thumb and in- 
dex, holding 
them apart, 
at right of 
head, then 
strike down 
forward, clos- 
ing them to- 
H T 1. 

no . not . Wave 

to the right 
open right hand, 
back turned si de- 
ward, hand being 
nearly palm up at 
end of movement, 
that is, make a 
backhanded wave 
to the right. 

XIX Adverbial Particles . These are highly conventionalized signs, mostly of 
origin now obscure, denoting manner, time, place, interrogation, uncertainty, and the 
like. Some adverbial particles of place are the same in the sign language as demonstra- 
tive pronouns ( there equals that ) . and the negative particle is the same as the negative 
interjection ( not equals noj ). 

XX. Sounds . Talk without talk is not entirely silent; oral and non-oral 
sounds can be, and are, made a component element of some of the signs. Twenty non- 
oral sounds (such as the snapping of the fingers and the clapping of the hands) can 
be produced by the human body, aside from a much larger number of oral sounds. 


The above analysis is based on what Indian sign users and language speakers 
themselves see in the signs. The beautifully executed line drawings presented above 
were prepared by Mr. Cecil T. Sandell , taking Indian Sign Talk , 1893 , as the standard 
source, but with careful and special posing for many of the signs. In the above 
drawings, where the formation of the hand does not change, the path of the movement 
is indicated by a broken line, and the end of the movement by an X or by the broken 
line outline of the final posture of the hand- Where the formation of the hand 
changes during the motion, the broken line outline is replaced by a solid line out- 
line, for the reason that a broken line would be inadequate for showing clearly the 
changed formation. Signs taken from Hadley are indicated by adding, after giving 
the directions for making the sign, the letter H followed by Hadley' s dictionary let- 
ter intial and entry number. 


The Lao du Flambeau Indians of Wisconsin, using funds 
borrowed from the Indian Reorganization Act's revolving loan fund, 
have built a group of attractive summer cabins on Fence Lake, which 
lies within the reservation. These cottages, which are equipped 
for housekeeping, have four rooms and screened porches. The rental 
is $25.00 per week for September and $35.00 per week for August. 
These rates include fuel, ice and the use of a boat. Reservations 
may be made by writing to the Lac du Flambeau Tribal Council, of 
which George Brown is president, at Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin. 


Earl Wooldridge, formerly the Superintendent of the Rocky 
Boy 1 3 Agency in Montana is being transferred to the superintendency 
of the Grande Ronde-Siletz Agency in Oregon. This agency was former- 
ly a part of the Salem School Jurisdiction. Superintendent Emmett 
E. McNeilly, formerly the Superintendent of the Western Shoshone 
Agency in Nevada, will fill Mr. Wooldridge 's place as the Superin- 
tendent of the Rocky Boy's Agency in Montana. Arthur G. Hutton, 
Superintendent of the Hopi Agency in Arizona has entered on duty 
as Traveling Supervisor for CCC-ID, with headquarters at Oklahoma 
City, Oklahoma. Seth Wilson, formerly Principal at Standing Rock, 
North Dakota, will take Mr. Hutton 1 8 place as Superintendent of 
the Hopi Agency in Arizona. 

Claude M. Hirst, who waa formerly Director of Education 
for Alaska, has now become General Superintendent for Alaska- 




(Exclusive Of Private Relief Bills) 

Note : No bills affecting Indians were enacted during the second 
session of the Seventy-Fifth Congress, which lasted from November 15 to Decem- 
ber 21, 1937. The third session, whose Indian legislation is noted below, 
lasted from January 3 to June 16, 1938. 

Title Of Act 

Act Number 

Date Of 



S. 558 : Amending acts fixing the rate of pay- Public 433 
ment of irrigation construction costs on the Wapato 
Indian irrigation project, Yakima, Washington, and 
for other purposes. 

S. 1945 : To authorize- the Secretary of the In- Public 459 4-4-38 
terior to grant concessions on reservoir sites and 
other lands in connection with Federal Indian irriga- 
tion projects wholly or partly Indian, and to lease 
the lands in such reserves for agricultural, grazing 
and other purposes. 

S. 2163 : To authorize the deposit and invest- Public 714 6-24-38 
ment of- Indian funds. 

S. 2368 : To provide funds for cooperation 
with School District Numbered 2, Mason County, 
State of Washington, in the construction of a pub- 
lic school building to be available to both white 
and Indian children. 

Public 613 


S. 2689 : To regule.te the leasing of certain 
Indian lands for mining purposes. 

Public 506 


2698: To set aside certain lands in Okla- Public 480 

homa for the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians. 

H. R . 3162 : Conferring jurisdiction upon the 
United States Court of Claims to hear, examine, 
adjudicate and render judgment on any and all 
claims which the Ute Indians or any Tribe or Band 
thereof may have against the United States, and 
for other purposes. 

S. 3166 : To amend section 2139 of the Re- 
vised Statutes, as amended. 

Public 754 

Public 631 





S. 5283 : To authorize the Secretary of the 
Interior to place certain records of Indian 
tribes of Nebraska with the Nebraska State Histor- 
ical Society, at Lincoln, Nebraska, under rules 
and regulations to be prescribed by him. 

S. 3346 : Authorizing the Secretary of the In- 
terior to pay salaries and expenses of the chairman, 
secretary and interpreter of the Klamath General 
Council, members of the Klamath Business Committee 
and other committees appointed by said Klamath Gen- 
eral Council and official delegates of the Klamath 

S. 3415 : To purchase certain private lands 
within the Shoshone (Wind River) Indian Reservation- 

Public 780 6-29-38 

Public 751 6-25-38 

Public 674 6-20-38 

S. 3426: To authorize an appropriation for re- Public 675 6-20-38 
payment to the Middle Rio Grande Conservancy District, 
a subdivision of the State of New Mexico, of the 
share of the said district's construction and opera- 
tion and maintenance costs applicable to certain prop- 
erties owned by the United States, situated in Bernal- 
illo County, New Mexico, within the exterior boundaries 
of the district; to authorize the Secretary of the In- 
terior to contract with said district for future opera- 
tion and maintenance charges against said lands; to 
authorize appropriation for extra construction work 
performed by said district for the special benefit of 
certain Pueblo Indian lands and to authorize appropria- 
tion for construction expenditures benefiting certain 
acquired lands of Pueblo Indians of the State of New 

S. 3849: Authorizing the Secretary of the Treas- Public 617 6-15-38 
ury to transfer on the books of the Treasury Depart- 
ment to the credit of the Chippewa Indians of Minneso- 
ta the proceeds of a certain judgment erroneously de- 
posited in the Treasury of the United States as public 

S. 4036 : Relating to the tribal and individual Public 711 6-24-38 
affairs of the Osage Indians of Oklahoma. 

H. R. 4540 : Authorizing the Red Lake Band Of 
Chippewa Indians in the State of Minnesota to file 
suit in the Court of Claims, and for other purposes. 

H. R. 4544 : To divide the funds of the Chippewa 
Indians of Minnesota between the Red Lake Band and 
the remainder of the Chippewa Indians of Minnesota, 
organized as the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe. 

Public 755 6-28-38 

Public 632 6-15-38 


H. R. 5974 ; To authorize payments in lieu of al- Public 572 6-1-38 
lotments to certain Indians of the Klamath Indian Res- 
ervation in the State of Oregon, and to regulate in- 
heritance of restricted property within the Klamath 

H. fl. 7844 ; To amend the Act of Congress entitled Public 728 6-25-38 
"An Act to establish an Alaska Game Commission, to pro- 
tect game animals, land fur-bearing animals, and birds 
in Alaska, and for other purposes", approved January 13, 
1925, as amended. 

H. R. 7277 ; To amend an Act entitled "An Act to re- Public 474 4-8-38 
fer the claims of the Menominee Tribe of Indians to the 
Court of Claims with the absolute right of appeal to the 
Supreme Court of the United States" , approved September 
3, 1935. 

Public 757 6-28-38 

H. R. 7515 5 To authorize the sale of certain lands 
of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, North Carolina. 

H. R. 7868 ; To provide for conveying to the State 
of North Dakota certain lands within Burleigh County 
within that State for public use. 

H . R . 8432 ; To provide for a flowage easement on 
certain ceded Chippewa Indian lands bordering Lake of 
the Woods, Warroad River, and Rainy River, Minnesota, 
and for other purposes. 

H. R. 8885 ; For the benefit of the Goshute and oth- Public 484 4-13-38 
er Indians, and for other purposes. 

Public 729 6-25-38 

Public 483 4-13-38 

H. R. 9358 ; To authorize the withdrawal and res- 
vation of small tracts of the public domain in Alaska 
for schools, hospitals and other purposes. 

Public 569 5-31-38 

The following two bills were passed by the Congress but 
were vetoed; 

S. 1478; Conferring jurisdiction on the Court of 
Claims to hear and determine the claims of the Choctaw 
Indians of the State of Mississippi. 

Of Veto 


H. R. 5753 : To authorize advance of the amounts 
due on delinquent homestead entries on certain Indian 
reservations. / 



By Leo F. Walker, In Charge of Construction 

Work un- 
der the CCC-ID 
program on the 
Siletz Reservation 
in Washington dur- 
ing recent months 
has included a 
number of activi- 
ties which have 
improved the ap- 
pearance and con- 
venience of our 
council grounds, 
where most of the 
Siletz Indians' 
gatherings are 
Before - This View Shows The Entrance To The held. 
Park Before Construction Was Started. 

A picnic 
ground, for example, was developed on the wooded hillside near the 
council hall and community cannery. Underbrush and dead trees were 
removed and a few trees were thinned out. With the timber from the 
excess trees, a shelter, benches, tables, steps and railings were 
built. The photograph appearing on the following page shows part 
of the completed development. 

A sanitary water supply for our cannery and picnic grounds 
had been a long- felt need. The spring had been neglected; surface 
water drained in; and small animals frequently fell into the spring 
and were drowned. As a CCC-ID project, a concrete retaining wall 
was built around the spring and the ground so sloped that surface 
water could not enter. A half -inch mesh wire fence was built around 
the spring and sunk well into the ground to prevent rodents from 
burrowing their way into the spring. 

The fences around the community grounds were repaired, 
two cattle guards were built and several gates and turnstiles were 

The construction of an attractive overnight cabin has been 
another worth-while CCC-ID project. It was a new experience for our 


enrollees, and all of 
them wanted the chance 
t o work on it- The 
cabin which is built 
of fir logs is 20' by 
24' , and has two 
rooms • A large cob- 
blestone fireplace 
was built by one of 
the enrollees and 
shrubbery which was 
planted around the 
cabin adds much to 
its attractiveness- 

Another im- 
portant project has 
been the improvement 
of old trails. They 
have become blocked by fallen trees and heavy underbrush, making it prac- 
tically impossible to reach the scene of a fire promptly. Several miles 
of these trails have been cleared. They are now open and in good con- 
dition, not only for pleasure walks through the woods, but for putting 
down fires quickly if they should come. 

t j 


Lfij^3ij^ v * 



«' r^^^ l_ 

After - Tyee Illihee Park When Completed. 
Note The Log Cabin In The Foreground. 


Visitors in the Washington Office during the past month 
have included: Seth Wilson, Superintendent of the Hopi Agency in 
Arizona; Alambert E. Robinson, Superintendent of the Pima Agency 
in Arizona; Louis Balsam, Field Representative in Charge of the 
Consolidated Chippewa Agency in Minnesota; Chester E. Faris, Field 
Representative; Miss Louise Wyberg, Assistant Supervisor of Educa- 
tion from the United Pueblos in New Mexico; Miss Verna Nori , Teach- 
er from United Pueblos; Mr. Elmer J. Carlson, Forest Supervisor 
from Consolidated Chippewa in Minnesota- 

Accompanying Superintendent Robinson of Pima Agency were 
four members of the Pima Tribal Council. They were: Alex Cannon, 
Lieutenant-Governor; Francis Patton, Secretary; Dave Johnson; and 
Hugh Patton. 

Mr. Louis C. Mueller, Chief Special Officer, has also 
been a recent visitor in the Washington Office. 


B7 Donald B. Jones, Assistant Supervisor, CCC-ID Enrollee Program 

Last October Superintendent McCown at the Kiowa Agency in 
Oklahoma put the problem of recommendations for a recreational and 
vocational program for the jurisdiction's CCC-ID enrollees into the 
hands of a steering committee of three.* After consultation with 
CCC-ID supervisors, William Karty, then a leader on CCC-ID projects, 
was recommended to head this work. 

The program got under way, with groups of some 80 enroll ees 
meeting weekly at the Riverside and Fort Sill schools. Extension 
school and CCC-ID personnel served as teachers for such varied sub- 
jects as Judging Beef Cattle, Care of Horses and Mules, Feeding 
Poultry, Masonry, Health, Homemade Furniture, Safe Driving and Civics. 

In February the need for work in smaller groups became ap- 
parent ; consequently the work was divided so that part of the in- 
struction was given to the group as a whole and part to small classes. 
There is now an hour of class instruction and two hours of field work 
weekly. Approximately 250 enrollees now attend. 

The CCC-ID recreational program has included horseshoe 
pitching, boxing, basketball, baseball, softball and tennis. Ath- 
letic events have been joined in enthusiastically by enrollees and 
strongly attended. 

Monthly community programs held at Mountain View, Fletcher 
and Anadarko, under the sponsorship of Robert Goombi , Edmund Mahseet 
and Frank Henry, all Indians, further serve to bring the Indians of 
this jurisdiction together for exchange of ideas. 

* J. M. Conover, Jr., Project Manager; J. M. Jackson, Principal 
Foreman of the CCC-ID; and Scott B. Moore, Extension Agent. 



Salt deposits not many miles east of Hot Sorings Nation- 
al Park, Arkansas, are known to have been worked by the Indians be- 
fore the early white settlers used them as a source of their salt. 

Numerous fragments of pottery found at these locales in- 
dicate the importance of earthen pots in the collecting of this 
valuable food substance. Reprinted from the National Park Service 



By P. Everett Sperry, Project Manager, CCC-ID 

Potawatomi Agency, Kansas 

Today - some three-quarters of a century since the adop- 
tion of Kansas into statehood - those of us who are trained to be 
sensitive to soil wastage are working to bring about a change in 
the traditional policy of farm management and land usaee in Kansas 
The depleted condition of the top-soil has made most good farmers 
consider their farming methods, and has brought the realization 
that we must make natural topographical conditions work for us, 
and not against us- The old system of cross-fencing and straight- 
plowing, inherited from the first government territorial surveys 
and subsequent section surveys, is giving way to a system which 
considers natural contours and seeks to use every a.cre to its best 
possible advantage. 

While Indian land in Kansas is a minute fraction of the 
State's total area, the participation of Indians in this effort to 
save soil is a gratifying indication of Indian interest in conser- 

Contour Farming Is Practical 

Some farmers are reluctant to adopt contour farming. To 
change from a long-established system requires both patience and 
planning on the farmer's part. Soil wastage in some sections is 
not spectacular enough or rapid enough to alarm individual owners, 
who feel that the land, while less fertile than it was, will last 
as long as they do. 

Many other farmers, however, and among them a large num- 
ber of our Indian farmers, are keenly interested in terracing and 
contour farming as a means of saving and improving their land, and, 
ultimately, to better living. CCC-ID work at Potawatomi has, in 
large part, been directed toward developing this type of farm man- 
agement • 

A Brief Discussion Of Terracing Methods 

In principle, farming on the contour is the same as farm- 
ing land which has been terraced. If our farmers had practiced 


Terracing On A Potawatomi Farm. The First 
Plowed Furrow Follows The Terrace Contour. 

Masonry Water Outlet Plus One Rain Made Pos- 
sible This Storage Of Water On A Potawatomi 
Farm. In Two Or Three Years This Area Will 
Be Filled In With Silt And Will Be The Best 

Land On The Farm. Note Two Levels Of Water. 

A Kansas Gully. There Are Thousands Of Others, 
These Can Be Controlled And The Land Restored. 


contour farming from the beginning, when the sod was broken, there 
would be less reason for terracing now. Terracing, however, has 
a very definite place in our conservation program and the better 
the work is done, the more satisfactory will be the results. 

In Kansas, our terraces must be constructed high enough 
to carry the run-off satisfactorily, and wide enough to permit 
heavy farm machinery to pass over them without dragging. This re- 
quires an oval-shaped terrace ridge with a minimum height of ap- 
proximately eighteen inches and a minimum width of about twenty- 
two feet. The width and height of all terrace structures may and 
should be increased by regular plowing operations until the desired 
condition is attained. We lay out our system with a minimum of 
sixty feet and ranging up to approximately two hundred feet between 
terraces with a maximum length of two thousand feet. All terraces 
are laid out with a variable grade ranging from four-tenths per 
hundred feet at the outlet to level in the outer end. 

We believe that heavy machinery is more economical and 
does a more satisfactory job than light machinery on Indian reser- 
vations. On the Potawatomi we are using a Diesel ED 7 - wide-gauge, 
wide-tread - Caterpillar and a No. 66 grader with a twelve-foot by 
thirty-inch special blade. Most of our Indian land is farmed by 
men whose interest is in the production of a maximum cash crop. 
These men usually will have little interest in spending time on 
maintaining soil-saving structures; consequently it is essential 
to build sturdy, lasting structures of sound design. Terracing 
could be more cheaply done if our farmery knew and would follow a 
regular system of operations designed to carry the run-off water. 
We find through actual field experience that they have to be shown 
how to farm terraces so as to build them up and avoid their destruc- 

We must realize that our program is still in its infancy. 
Poorly designed and constructed terracing and contour systems will 
be advertised through the community and defeat further expansion 
of this valuable farming method. If the work is well done and main- 
tained, however, we can expect interest in conservation of the soil 
to grow. 


The Department of Agriculture's bulletin, "Terracing For 
Soil and Water Conservation", by C L. Hamilton (Farmers' Bulletin 
1789, April 1938), gives specific directions for terrace construc- 
tion and farming practice on terraced lands. This bulletin can be 
obtained by writing to the U. S • Department of Agriculture , Wash - 
ington , D. C. 



By John P. Brown 

June 1938 commemorates the hundredth anniversary of the 
forcible removal of the Cherokee Indians from the land of their 
fathers to a new home in the West. It was in June 1838 that the 
first band of approximately one thousand unwilling emigrants were 
placed on boats at Ross's Landing on the Tennessee River. With 
the departure of the Indians, Ross's Landing became a white post 
office and later in the year its name was changed to Chattanooga. 

Sickness and death were rife among the emigrants; so much 
so that the Cherokee National Council petitioned General Winfield 
Scott, in charge of the removal, for permission to remove the remain- 
ing Cherokees under their own leadership, overland, after the hot 
season had abated. The request was granted and during the months 
of October and November 1838, thirteen thousand Cherokees turned 
their faces westward over the Trail of Tears. 

Before leaving the Cherokee National Council met for the 
last time in the old homeland and solemnly reaffirmed their title 
to the land of their fathers from which they were being forcibly re- 

"The free consent of the Cherokee people is in- 
dispensable to a valid transfer of the Cherokee title. 
The Cherokee people have neither by themselves nor by 
their representatives given such consent- It follows 
that the original title and ownership of said lands still 
rests in the Cherokee Nation unimpaired and absolute. The 
Cherokee people have existed as a distinct national com- 
munity for a period beyond the dates and records and 
memory of man. Their title is the most pure and ancient 
and absolute known to man* its date beyond human record 
and its validity confirmed by possession. These attri- 
butes have never been relinquished by the Cherokee peo- 
ple, and cannot be dissolved by the expulsion of the Na- 
tion from its own territory by the power of the United 

* Mr. John P. Brown is the author of a new book entitled "Old 
Frontiers. " The book review appears on page 24 of this issue. 


Cherokees Of Iroquoian Stock 

The Cherokees have been determined by similarity of speech 
to be a branch of the great Iroquoian family of Indians who emigrated 
in the twilight period of human history after the Ice Age across 
Bering Strait to North America, possibly ten thousand years ago. 

It is appropriate that the resolution of the National 
Council should specify that the Cherokees had always existed as a 
national entity; for the Iroquoian people were skilled in the art 
of governing themselves. The Iroquoian Confederacy was probably 
•the purest democracy ever known. Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, one of our 
greatest scientists, has stated that if the Iroquoian people had 
been permitted another hundred years, uninterrupted by European 
intervention, they would have dominated the eastern portion of our 
country and might have built a better system of government than the 
white man has ever achieved. Not, perhaps, one with automobiles, 
radios or airplanes, but one more successful in granting to mankind 
the rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. 

Just when the Cherokees separated from the parent Iroquois 
is not known. It is estimated to have been about the thirteenth 
century A. D. The separation was probably violent, for throughout 
their history the Cherokees warred with the Iroquois- Peace was 
not made until white pressure brought a measure of unity to the 
various Indian peoples. In 1770, at the Cherokee town of Tuskegee, 
on Little Tennessee Eiver, hostilities were finally concluded in a 
treaty which was attended as a youth by Sequoyah- 

Pushing southward into the mountainous country that was 
to become their own, the Cherokees, by their own strength, expelled 
the Muskogean or Creek people from the Tennessee Valley; and with 
the assistance of the Chickasaws, forced the Shawnees t'o abandon 
middle Tennessee and retire across Kentucky to Ohio. This warfare, 
like that with the Iroquois, became hereditary from father to Bon, 
the established way of winning glory. The last great fight with 
the Creeks occurred in 1755 at Taliwa, Georgia, near the present 
Canton. Oconostota, at the head of the five hundred Cherokee war- 
riors, defeated the Creeks and forced abandonment of the Creek 
towns in North Georgia. 

First White Contact With DeSoto 

The first white contact of the Cherokees was with DeSoto, 
who visited their country in 1540. In 1715, they made their first 
treaty with the English which was accompanied by a land cession - 


ominous portent. In 1730, a group of chiefs visited England and 
swore allegiance to King George. Efforts made by the French to de- 
tach them proved futile. The Cherokees remained loyal to England, 
although there was occasional dissatisfaction, and even warfare for 
a time, until after the American Revolution. As America emerged 
victorious, the Cherokees, as former allies of the British, were 
forced to cede much of their land in Tennessee and North Carolina; 
and retired more and more into the abandoned Creek towns of North 

At the time of removal, the Cherokees were well-advanced 
in civilization. Sequoyah had perfected his alphabet and the Scrip- 
tures had been translated into Cherokee. They were a Christianized 
and peaceful people. That the removal was cruel, unjust and unneces- 
sary, is now recognized. It was dictated by whites 1 selfish desire 
for the Cherokee lands and was hastened by the discovery of gold in 
1828, within the Cherokee Nation. Thereafter, action moved fast, 
culminating in the unjust treaty of removal signed in December 1835- 
This treaty was enforced, although it was repudiated by nine-tenths 
of the Cherokee people. 

Centennial Of Removal To Be Held At Chattanooga 

Chattanooga, during the ten days of September 15 to 25 is 
celebrating its own centennial and commemorating the hundredth an- 
niversary of Cherokee removal- Pilgrimages and the placing of mark- 
ers at beloved Indian sites is planned. These include Echota, the 
Cherokee capital; the last home of John Ross east of the Mississippi; 
the home of Pathkiller; Candy Creek Mission where Reverend Stephen 
Foreman was educated; and the home of Dragging Canoe, the war chief 
of the Cherokees. It is hoped that Cherokees, both of the East and 
West, will participate as guests of Chattanooga. 


The Education Division has issued,, in attractive format, 
a list of suggested books for Indian schools- The list is divided 
into three principal sections: books for the younger pupil3, through 
the sixth grade; books for older p^ils, through the high school; 
books for adults - teachers, advisers, principals, social workers, 
etc There is also a brief section on encyclopedias, dictionaries 
and atlases; and one on magazines and newspapers. Each reference 
is followed by concise bibliographical data and by a brief comment. 

The booklet was printed as a student project at Haskell 
Institute and may be obtained by. mailing a check or money order for 
fifteen cents to Haskell Institute at Lawrence, Kansas. 



New Plan For Fire Duty At Navajo 
( Chin Lee - Arizona ) We have a plan 
here for holding twenty men in camp 
for fire duties over the week-ends. 
These men are subject to any fire 
calls. The detail is alternated ev- 
ery week, thus giving each man in 
camp a responsibility over week-ends. 
This plan will continue until the 
rainy season sets in. 

About 90$ of the enrollees are 
taking part in athletics. It sure 
looks good to see them on the ath- 
letic field after working hours. Ev- 
ery evening we have a number of 
spectators from all around observing 
the different games. Our baseball 
team is coming along just fine. So 
far, all our games have been victor- 
ies. We are mighty proud to have a 
record team in camp. This week we 
are playing the " Gallup Miners" at 
Gallup. W. B. Lorentino , Leader . 

Well Digging At Sells ( Arizona ) 
Project #18, DW-39: Good progress 
was made this week and the well is 
now 138 feet deep. Water was en- 
countered at 78 feet but only tested 
about 3 gallons per minute. An ad- 
ditional water vein was struck at 
105 feet which apparently will amount 
to considerable production, and since 
our present bailer equipment cannot 
test in excess of 30 gallons per min- 
ute, pump column and cylinder will 
have to be set before satisfactory 
test can be determined. Harris H. 
Roberts . 

Irrigation Work At Northern 

Idaho ( Idaho ) The work out here 
is moving along very well. There 

were some real hot days which slowed 
up the work a little. We ran into 
some trouble with our dams in the 
Soldier's Irrigation ditch; the 
squirrels and pocket gophers dug 
holes around them and allowed the 
water to seep through so that the 
dirt around the retaining walls was 
washed away. Harold R. Wing. 

Truck Trail Construction At 
Seminole ( Florida ) Owing to a de- 
crease in rainfall it was believed 
advisable to use every available 
man and the two trucks to finish 
the stretch of trail leading south- 
west from headquarters for an ap- 
proximate distance of one-quarter 
mile. This trail was recently 
graded in part by our workers and 
a right-of-way was cut through the 
cypress. This was 100 feet in 

All traffic had to pass to one 
side of the grade; consequently the 
going was bad. In fact, it was al- 
most impossible to pass. Now we 
have the new grade opened and the 
new bridge is in.- W. Stanley Han - 
son , Mechanic -. 

Classes On Range Grasses Being 
Held At Carson ( Nevada ) Miss Edith 
V. A. Murphy has been doing some 
preliminary work before starting 
classes in range grasses and poison 
weeds. She has made quite a collec- 
tion of wild grasses from this lo- 
cality. She is very anxious to 
have all the men interested in cat- 
tle or sheep raising become acquaint- 
ed with the various forage grasses 
as well as the poison weeds which 


will kill livestock, 

Frank M. Parch- 

Telephone Maintenance At Kla - 
math (Oregon) Telephone lines have 
"been placed in proper working order 
in all the lookouts except those 
at Swan Leke and Tamsey Mountains. 
Considerable work was necessary on 
telephone maintenance this spring, 
due to the great number of snags 
which had fallen across the lines 
during the winter months. W. R. 
McCleve . 

Work On The Yavapai Truck Trail 
Completed At Truxton Canon ( Arizona ) 
This week saw the completion of this 
project which was a truck trail from 
the center of this small Yavapai 
Reservation to a recently completed 
well with windmill and storage tank. 
This reservation is 132 miles re- 
moved from the main agency and prop- 
er supervision was difficult. But 
in spite of all this, these people 
did a fine job on this truck trail 
and especially so when one considers 
that the only equipment used was 
man-power, picks, shovels and wheel 
barrows. Ross Carman , Project Man - 
ager . 

grasshopper Control at Fort 
Tot ten ( North Dakota ) Sixty 50- 
gallon barrels of liquid arsenite 
were received during the past week 
to be used for our grasshopper con- 
trol project. About twenty crews 
have been arranged to spread grass- 
hopper poison in the various vicin- 

One grasshopper machine, which 
was built to the specifications of 
the North Dakota Agricultural College 
plans, is to be pulled behind a truck 
by one crew which will cover the 
major fields which happen to be on 

level territory. The other crews 
consist of three men to each unit. 
These crews will spread poison by 
hand in the rough parts of the res- 
ervation. Warm weather prevailed 
during the last week. This type of 
weather hatches grasshoppers. 

Poisoning the affected areas 
is necessary right now, and we will 
put forth every effort to cover as 
much territory and kill as many 
grasshoppers as possible. Christian 
A. Ruber , Junior Engineer . 

Blister Rust Control At Keshena 
( Wisconsin ) Blister rust crews here 
spent a good day with the State 
blister rust official. First the 
entire crew was taken into the field 
where they were shown just how blis- 
ter rust fungus operates on white 
pine and several phases of infection. 
After the field trip the boys were 
shown several short movies on blis- 
ter rust crews at work and other 
educational pictures relating to 
forest work- Walter Ridlington , 
Project Manager . 

Picnic ground Development - O n 
The Fence Lake Thoroughfare At great 
Lake s ( Wisconsin ) This project in- 
volves the clearing and grubbing of 
approximately three acres of heavily- 
wooded second growth, situated on 
the bank of Fence Lake and bounded 
on the northwest by the Fence Lake- 
Crawling Stone Lake thoroughfare 
and served by a CCC truck trail. 

At this time 6 tables, 5 fire- 
places, 2 incinerators and 2 latrines 
have been placed. The parking lota 
have had a covering of cinders and 
the guard rail is about finished. 
Upon completion, it will be one of 
seventeen picnic grounds or camp 
sites which have been constructed 


by Unit A on this reservation. With 
the large influx of tourists in this 
vicinity during the summer months, 
their value in concentrating camp 
fires in suitable locations appears 
to have more than justified their 
cost when one compares past and 
present fire-fighting costs. Ben 
C. Gauthier . 

Small Fire Extinguished At Tu - 
lalip ( Washington ) One small beach 
fire was extinguished by CCC-ID en- 
rollees with the assistance of the 
County Fire Warden. Theodore Lozeau , 
Forest Ranger . 

Fire Control At Fort Belknap 
( Montana ) The lookout man will be 
placed at the lookout station with- 
in the next few days , as the fire 
season will then be at its peak. 
The guards will be put on at a later 
date. The recent rains we have been 
having have been of great help in 
fire prevention and the continuation 
of these rains should help us go 
through another season without any 
serious fires. H arold Helgeson , 
Manager , CCC-ID . 

Work At Cherokee ( North Carolina ) 
We have practically all the crew 
working on sloping banks and clear- 
ing off rock on Project #115. A 
crew of four men are shooting stumps 
ahead of the trail builder. We have 
one man on Project #105 who is cutting 
overhanging limbs from the telephone 
line. Roy Bradley , Group Foreman . 

Activities At Potawatomi ( Kan - 
sas ) The Kickapoo boys are complet- 
ing the terraces and masonry baffles 
on the Stella Menahquah 80 acres. 
Tom Herrick, Kickapoo, has agreed to 
summer fallow this terraced field 
and have the field ready for wheat 
at wheat-sowing time. P. Everett 
Sperry . 

Fence Maintenanc e At Choctaw - 
Chic kasaw Sanator ium ( Oklahoma ) 
Work on fence maintenance at the 
Sanatorium Reserve has been progress- 
ing nicely. Considerable timber 
that had been blown down across the 
fences by recent storms has been 
removed. Broken wire was replaced 
and repaired and numerous posts 
were replaced. It is believed that 
within another week we will have 
these fences in very good condition. 
Tony Winlock , Leader CCC-ID . 

Work At Sells ( Arizona ) Proj - 
ect #1 - San Xavier: The crew has 
been working very smoothly. The 
open joint concrete pipe in the in- 
filtration portion of the gallery 
has been progressing at a satisfac- 
tory rate. It is hoped that we will 
be able to increase the speed of 
]aying so as to get the gallery com- 
pleted before the rainy season starts. 
William J. Wagner . 

Spring Development At Fort 
Peck ( Montana ) Some time has been 
spent on Spring #140 and Spring # 
224, as they both proved to be of 
the seepy type which required more 
work than we anticipated. After 
these springs were opened, a large 
flow of water was hit. This 
flooded about 100 acres of land. 
It was necessary to dig drain ditches, 
lay in a culvert and built a trail 

The results proved very good. 
James McDonald , Sub-Foreman . 

Horse Trail Maintenance At Con - 
solidated Ute ( Colorado ) Trail main- 
tenance on Ute Mountain has gone for- 
ward steadily. Several rock points 
were blasted to make the trail wider. 
Part of the crew was busy rock pav- 
ing dips. A. L. Jekyll , Foreman.